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Trait Emitter

The trait Emitter adds publisher-subscriber functionality to objects. Traits are decorators functions that add functionality to an existing object.

Emitters are used to implement event-based patterns and support decoupling of components and facilitate asynchronous operations.

Dependencies: CORE.
Implements: DISPOSABLE, THENABLE.

Creating an Emitter

Use the emitter() function to add the publisher-subscriber functionality to an object.


	exc.traits.emitter(myObj);

Publishing an event

Use emit(eventName, args...) to emit an event.


myObj.emit("update", "Joe");

The function emit() takes the following parameters:

Parameter Description
event A string representing the event name to emit.
... Additional parameters passed to the event as arguments

Subscriber

A publisher is an event emitter, for each event we can subscribe handlers to be execute when the event is published.

We use the obj.on(eventName, callable) method to add an event handler.

var myObj = {
	fname: "Jose",
	lname: "Cuevas",
	type: 100,
};

exc.traits.emitter(myObj);

myObj.on("update", function(v1){
	console.log("update called v1=%o", v1);
});

myObj.emit("update", "Joe");

The signature of the event handler function passed to on() must match the parameters that the event will have. In our previous example the event handler takes one argument.

When we register our event handler with the method on() we create a subscription.

var subscription = myObj.on("update", function(v1){
	console.log("update called v1=%o", v1);
});

In most cases we can think of the subscription as the representation of the event handler and its execution.

We use the subscription.dispose() method to remove our event handlers.

We can subscribe multiple event handlers at once passing a plain object.

var subscription = myObj.on({
	update: function(v1){
		console.log("update called v1=%o", v1);
		return v1.toUpperCase();
	},
	error: function(msg){
		console.log("error=%s", msg);
	},
});

The function on() takes the following parameters:

Parameter Description
event A string representing the event name to subscribe for. You may pass a plain object for multiple subscriptions.
callback A callable called when the event specified is received.
opOnTop An optional boolean indicating that subscribed callback will be added to the top of the current callback stack.

Returns the object itself for chaining.

Subscription

The property subscription.publisher is a reference to the original emitter object.

Chaining a subscription

We can turn our subscription into a thenable object and use it to execute other functions in a chain using subscription.then().

var myObj = {
	fname: "Jose",
	lname: "Cuevas",
	type: 100,
};

exc.traits.emit(myObj);

//subscribe and make subscription thenable
var subscription = exc.traits.thenable(myObj.on("update", function(v1){
	console.log("update called v1=%o", v1);
	return v1.toUpperCase();
}));

//using thenable...
subscription.then(function(v1){
	console.log("then1 called v1=%o", v1);
	return "HELLO " + v1;
});

myObj.emit("update", "Joe");

Similar to a promise subscription.then() takes an callable that is executed after the event handler is processed.

The then() function returns a new thenable that we can use to chain more code using then().

When chaining functions using then() the value returned from the previous call is passed to the next function in the chain.

var myObj = {
	fname: "Jose",
	lname: "Cuevas",
	type: 100,
};

exc.traits.emitter(myObj);

exc.traits.thenable(myObj.on("update", function(v){
	console.log("update called v=%o", v);
	return v.toUpperCase();
})).then(function(v){
	console.log("then 1 called v=%o", v);
	return "HELLO " + v;
}).then(function(v1){
	console.log("then 2 called v=%o", v);
});

myObj.emit("update", "Joe")

Onetime subscriptions

The function once() is just like on() but the subscription will be executed only once. When the subscription is fulfilled it will be disposed.

With once() we can subscribe only to one event. Passing an object as the event name is not allowed.

The function once() takes the following parameters:

Parameter Description
event A string representing the event name to subscribe for.
callback A callable called when the event specified is received.
opOnTop An optional boolean indicating that subscribed callback will be added to the top of the current callback stack.

Returns a subscription object.

Using sticky events

With emit() when an event is published only existing subscribers will be invoked. A sticky event is a published event that will remain active for future subscribers.

In other words once a sticky event is emitted any subscription that comes after will be fulfilled and called immediately.

Sticky events are quite useful to represent a state in your application.

To publish a sticky event we use the special sticky namespace to call the emit() function.

//event was published
myObj.sticky.emit("userLoaded", {username:"joe", name:"Joe"});

//Later in your app lifecycle somebody subscribes to the event
//This subscriber will be executed instantly because the event was already published
myObj.once("userLoaded", function(user){
	console.log("We have an user %o", user);
});

The function emit() returns a disposable object. We use the method dispose() to remove the sticky event.

//event was published
var disposable = myObj.sticky.emit("userLoaded", {username:"joe", name:"Joe"});

//somewhere in code...
myObj.once("userLoaded", function(user){
	console.log("I will be called %o", user);
});

//later user logged out...
disposable.dispose(); //revoke the userLoaded event

//somewhere afterwards...
myObj.once("userLoaded", function(user){
	console.log("I will NOT be called %o", user);
});
Note: publisher.sticky.remove(event) can also be used to revoke a sticky event.

The function publisher.sticky.emit() is the same as a regular emit() and takes the following parameters:

Parameter Description
event A string representing the event name to emit.
... Additional parameters passed to the event as arguments

Returns disposable object.

Pausing an emitter

You can pause the delivery of events by calling emitterTogglePause(). When you pause the emitter all events triggered with emit() will be posponed until the pause is removed by calling emitterTogglePause() a second time. Once the pause is removed the emitter will deliver the events.

Other emitter methods

Function subscribeHandlers()

Automatically subscribes methods in an object based on their name.

emitter.subscribeHandlers(object)

Parameter Description
object The object with methods to subscribe.

Methods that start with "on" are considered event handlers. For example a method named "onDoThis" is an event handler for the event "DoThis".

After calling this function the object will have a dispose() function which can be called to remove the subscriptions.

Function dispose()

This is a teardown method that releases the emitter data.

emitter.dispose()

The dispose functions is added in top of any existing one.

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